Since the construction of the first sea defences in 1909 (destroyed in 1911), successive generations have watched the Espinho coastline retreating and progressing, landward and seaward by many meters. Nowadays, the city is artificially protected by two large groynes, one in the north extending for 350m and another in the south for 400m, and a 400m seawall. The situation is now considered to be stable thanks to these protections.
This case study report features a comprehensive chronology of erosion events in Espinho, and gives an overview of the past and current issues concerned with it.
Francisco Taveira Pinto Hydraulics and Water Resources Institute of the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto / Instituto de Hidráulica e Recursos Hídricos da Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto (IHRH/FEUP) Rua do Dr. Roberto Frias s/n 4200-465 Porto PORTUGAL Telefon: + 351 22 508 1924 Fax: +351 22 508 1952 Webseite: http://www.fe.up.pt/ihrh